Browse Items (30 total)

  • Tags: Chemistry

Adenosine Triphosphate

Adenosine Triphosphate.jpg
The nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is composed of a ribose sugar, an adenine base, and three phosphate groups ([link]). ATP is classified as a high energy compound because the two covalent bonds linking its three phosphates store a…


In the DNA double helix, two strands attach via hydrogen bonds between the bases of the component nucleotides.

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Other Important Lipids

Other Important Lipids.jpg
(a) Phospholipids are composed of two fatty acids, glycerol, and a phosphate group. (b) Sterols are ring-shaped lipids. Shown here is cholesterol. (c) Prostaglandins are derived from unsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) includes hydroxyl…


Triglycerides are composed of glycerol attached to three fatty acids via dehydration synthesis. Notice that glycerol gives up a hydrogen atom, and the carboxyl groups on the fatty acids each give up a hydroxyl group.


Three Important Polysaccharides.jpg
Polysaccharides can contain a few to a thousand or more monosaccharides. Three are important to the body:

Starches are polymers of glucose. They occur in long chains called amylose or branched chains called amylopectin, both of which are…


A disaccharide is a pair of monosaccharides. Disaccharides are formed via dehydration synthesis, and the bond linking them is referred to as a glycosidic bond (glyco- = “sugar”). Three disaccharides are important to humans. These are sucrose,…


A monosaccharide is a monomer of carbohydrates. Five monosaccharides are important in the body. Three of these are the hexose sugars, so called because they each contain six atoms of carbon. These are glucose, fructose, and galactose.
The remaining…

Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases.jpg
(a) In aqueous solution, an acid dissociates into hydrogen ions (H+) and anions. Nearly every molecule of a strong acid dissociates, producing a high concentration of H+. (b) In aqueous solution, a base dissociates into hydroxyl ions (OH–) and…

The Periodic Table of the Elements

The Periodic Table of the Elements.jpg
Visit this website to view the periodic table. In the periodic table of the elements, elements in a single column have the same number of electrons that can participate in a chemical reaction. These electrons are known as “valence electrons.” For…

Advances in Chemical Synthesis

Organic chemistry belongs to a branch of chemistry that is generally associated with
compounds containing carbon. It is so important because millions of compounds that contain carbon are related to our daily lives, so organic chemistry has many…

Natural Resources Biometrics

Natural Resources Biometrics.pdf
Natural Resources Biometrics begins with a review of descriptive statistics, estimation, and hypothesis testing. The following chapters cover one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), including multiple comparison methods and interaction…

Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is primarily devoted to the unique properties of the carbon atom and its compounds. These compounds play a critical role in biology and ecology, Earth sciences and geology, physics, industry, medicine and — of course — chemistry. At…


Chemistry is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of the two-semester general chemistry course. The textbook provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of chemistry and understand how those concepts…


Self-Assembled Molecules – New Kind of Protein Ligands

Self-Assembled Molecules - New Kind of Protein Ligands.pdf
The standard substrate complexation mechanism engages natural binding sites. In contrast, supramolecular structures may form complexes with proteins by
penetrating in regions which are either naturally unstable or become temporarily accessible due…

General Chemistry

Wikibooks is for textbooks, annotated texts, instructional guides, and manuals. These materials can be used in a traditional classroom, an accredited or respected institution, a home-school environment, or for self-learning.

Thermodynamics and Chemistry

Thermodynamics and Chemistry is designed primarily as a textbook for a one-semester course in classical chemical thermodynamics at the graduate or undergraduate level. It can also serve as a supplementary text and thermodynamics reference source.

General Chemistry Principles, Patterns, and

4. General Chemistry Principles, Patterns, and Applications.pdf
In this new millenium, as the world faces new and extreme challenges, the importance of acquiring a solid foundation in chemical principles has become increasingly important to understand the challenges that lie ahead. Moreover, as the world becomes…

Alkanes and Alkenes
Learn the basics of alkanes and alkenes. After watching the covalent bonds video you should have sufficient knowledge to understand about how alkanes and alkenes are formed and the differences between them. SUBSCRIBE to our channel to access many…


The theory of the abiogenic deep origin of hydrocarbons recognizes that the petroleum is a primordial material of deep origin [Kutcherov, Krayushkin 2010]. This theory explains that hydrocarbon compounds generate in the asthenosphere of the Earth and…

Analytical Chemistry 2.0

Analytical chemistry is more than a collection of analytical methods and an understanding of equilibrium chemistry; it is an approach to solving chemical problems. Although equilibrium chemistry and analytical methods are important, their coverage…

Concept Development Studies in Chemistry

10. concept-development-studies-in-chemistry-5.6.pdf
Concept Development Studies in Chemistry is an on-line textbook for an Introductory General Chemistry course. Each module develops a central concept in Chemistry from experimental observations and inductive reasoning. This approach complements an…

Chemistry: Atoms First

7. Chemistry - Atoms First.pdf
Chemistry - Atoms First is a peer-reviewed, openly licensed introductory textbook produced through a collaborative publishing partnership between OpenStax and the University of Connecticut and UConn Student Government Association. This title is an…

Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis: Volumes II

9. Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis Volumes II.pdf
A free, open-access organic chemistry textbook (volumes I and II) in which the main focus is on relevance to biology and medicine. This is a PDF version of a wiki project called Chemwiki at the University of California, Davis. There are also…

Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis: Volumes I

8. Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis Volumes I.pdf
Open-access organic chemistry textbook (volumes I and II) in which the main focus is on relevance to biology and medicine. This is a PDF version of a wiki project called Chemwiki at the University of California, Davis. There are also supplementary…

Clinical Biochemistry

The pre-analytical phase is defined as the period from the physician’s indication of the test up to the laboratory
analysis of the biological material. In other words, this phase involves an individual’s preparation for collection of the biological…

Plate Tectonics
Summary – the theory of plate tectonics had enabled us to explain the origin of earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building and has told us the fascinating history of the earth. To find out the evidence for all this watch “Wegener and the proof of…

Density of Different States
In this video we are going to look at what density is, how it is measured and the differences in density between the different states of matter. Informally, density is a measure of how ‘packed’ a material is with mass. Density is defined as the mass…